quarta-feira, 23 de julho de 2008

The Origin of the Hevajra Tantra

The Origin of the Hevajra Tantra

Shri Hevajra is a principal meditational deity of the Anuttarayoga classification of Buddhist Tantra. "Hevajra Tantra" was taught by Buddha Shakyamuni when He arose in the form of Shri Hevajra in the land of Madgadha at the time of destroying the four maras of defilements. The Tantra was requested by Vajragarbha and by the consort of Hevajra, Vajranairatmya. This root Tantra is known as "The Condensed Meaning of the Hevajra Tantra" which has 23 chapters and 750 verses. In this root Tantra, it has two parts that is known as "Two Sections" or "Two Examinations".

The Buddha had also taught "The Hevajra Tantra in 700,000 verses" and "The Hevajra Tantra in 500,000 verses". "Hevajra Tantra" has both exegetical tantras and supplementary tantras, such as "Vajra Tent Tantra" (Vajra Panjara Tantra), "Samputa Tantra", "Drop of Wisdom Tantra", "Drop of Great Seal Tantra" and "Lamp of Suchness, Great Yogini Tantra". From the numerous texts within the cycle of Hevajra, the root Tantra of "Two Sections" is the most important.

The Indian lineages of the Hevajra practices

In ancient India, there are many commentaries on the Hevajra Tantra. The important ones are written by 12 Indian masters, they are Vajragarbha, Naropa, Krishnacarin, Bhavapa, Tamkadasa, Padmapa, Dujayacandra, Shantipa, Samayavajra, Pad-myug, Kamadhenu and Dharmakirti. And there were six main commentarial traditions of the Hevajra Tantra which were handed down from the Indian Mahasiddhas. These are directly connected with the origin of Nine-fold Paths. They are the traditions of Saroruha, Durjayacandra, Northern Gate-Keeper Pandita Shantipa, Samantabhadra, Kashmiri Nyendrak Sangpo and Adipati Maitripa.

Hevajra practice of the Kagyu tradition

Nurmeous Hevajra lineages reached Tibet, from Marpa Lotsawa to Ngok Choku Dorje, in addition to traditions following Rapa Choereb, Chalse Lotsawa, Tumton Lodro Drakpa and Ram Dingmapa, following Mahasiddha Naropa's lineage. The Hevajra Tantra is classified as Mother Tantra in these lineages. Shri Hevajra of Marpa Lotsawa is practiced in the Kagyu tradition and is later brought into Gelug tradition.

Hevajra practice of the Sakya tradition

The main Hevajra tradition concerned with Lamdre tradition was brought to Tibet by Drogmi Lotsawa Shakye Yeshe who received a transmission from Viravajra who followed the lineage from Dombi Heruka (of the Commentarial Tradition or Sudden Path lineage), and a transmission from Gayadhara who followed the lineage from Krishnacarin (of the Instructional Tradition or Gradual Path lineage). Dombi Heruka and Krishnacarin (or Krishnapa) are the heart sons of Mahasiddha Virupa. In additional, Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, who had received (the whispered lineage of) Lamdre teachings from his Tibetan teacher, Zhangton Chobar, had also received Lamdre teachings directly from Mahasiddha Virupa in a pure vision. In Mahasiddha Virupa's lineage, the Hevajra Tantra is classified as Non-dual Tantra, and the only sole tradition* for Lamdre teachings is the Sakya tradition. During the time of Muchen Sempa Chenpo Konchok Gyaltsen, the Lamdre transmission broke into two sub-lineages: the Explanation for Private Disciples (Lob Shed) and the Explanation for Assemblies (Tshog Shed) transmissions.

--- Adibuddha Vajradhara
--- Vajranairatmya
01. Mahasiddha Virupa (Mahasiddha Birwapa)
02. Mahasiddha Krishnapa
03. Damarupa
04. Avadhutipa
05. Gayadhara
06. Drogmi Lotsawa Shakya Yeshe
07. Seton Kunrig
08. Zhangton Chobar
09. Tsewa Chenpo Sachen Kunga Nyingpo
10. Loppon Rinpoche Sonam Tsemo
11. Jetsun Rinpoche Dragpa Gyaltsen
12. Choje Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen
13. Drogon Chogyal Phagpa Lodro Gyaltsen
14. Shang Konchog Pal
15. Drakphukpa (Naza Drugpa Sonam Pal)
16. Lama Dampa Sonam Gyaltsen
17. Lama Palden Tsultrim
18. Buddhashri
19. Ngorchen Dorje Chang Kunga Zangpo
20. Muchen Sempa Chenpo (Konchog Gyaltsen)
21. Gyaltsab Kunga Wangchuk
22. Sonam Senghe
23. Konchog Phel
24. Sangye Rinchen
25. Salo Jhampai Dorje Kunga Sonam
26. Ngorchen Konchok Lhundrup
27. Ngakchang Chokyi Gyalpo Kunga Rinchen
28. Konchog Gyatso
29. Jamyang Sonam Wangpo
30. Dragpa Lodro Gyaltsen
31. Muchen Sangye Gyaltsen
32. Jamgon Ameshab Ngawang Kunga Sonam
33. Jamgon Sonam Wangchuk
34. Jamgon Kunga Tashi
35. Jamyang Sonam Rinchen
36. Sachen Kunga Lodro
37. Ngarik Kunga Tashi
38. Pema Dudul Wangchuk
39. Ngawang Kunga Gyaltsen
40. Thegchen Tashi Rinchen
41. Kunga Nyingpo Samphel Norbu
42. Dragshul Thrinley Rinchen
43. Khenchen Jampal Zangpo
44. Kyabgon Ngawang Kunga

Alternative lineage from Sachen Kunga Lodro (Ngorpa Lineage) to His Holiness Kyabgon Sakya Trizin:

36. Sachen Kunga Lodro
37. Thartse Je Namkha Chime
38. Kunga Tenzin
39. Kunga Tenpe Gyaltsen
40. Ngawang Sonam Gyaltsen
41. Ngawang Lodro Nyingpo
42. Ngawang Lodro Zhenphen Nyingpo
43. Kyabgon Ngawang Kunga

* Note: There were 18 lineages of Lamdre tradition, such as Sakya tradition, Jonang tradition, Zhama tradition and Drom tradition. All these lineages have been either died out or absorbed into Sakya tradition. For more informations, one may want to read "Luminous Lives: The Story of the Early Masters of the Lam 'bras Tradition in Tibet" by Cyrus Stearns, published by Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2001.